Friday, April 18, 2008


China, Tibet and Chinese nation
Edit and Translation by World Harmony Otganization

Tibet is part of China for more than 700 years

(You may have heard a lot about Chinese invasion of Tibet or sympathetic about Tibet Independent movement in Western media. Do you know that China has 56 nationalities and is never a racist country in history? Do you know that Tibetan immigrated to Tibet several thousand years ago from other part of China? Do you know that when Red Army entered Tibet in 1951, they also recovered other part of China (Chinese army invaded China????). Do you know that before 1951, the feudal lords in Tibet who constituted only five percent of the population possessed 95 percent of the means of production? Do you know that Buddhism was brought into Tibet from China Proper before being developed into the current state? Read the Tibet history before passing your judgment about a nation you have been misled in centuries.)

British and America working hard to separate Tibet from China since 19th century.

During the 19th century, Chinese Qing government control weakened, and prosperity diminished. China suffered massive social strife, economic stagnation, explosive population growth, and Western penetration and influence. Britain's desire to continue its illegal opium trade with China collided with imperial edicts prohibiting the addictive drug, and the First Opium War erupted in 1840. China lost the war; subsequently, Britain and other Western powers, including the United States, forcibly occupied "concessions" and gained special commercial privileges. Hong Kong was ceded to Britain in 1842 under the Treaty of Nanjing, and in 1898, when the Opium Wars finally ended, Britain executed a 99-year lease of the New Territories, significantly expanding the size of the Hong Kong colony.

British aggressors invaded China's Tibet twice in 1888 and 1904. The Tibetan army and civilians rose to resist but were defeated. In the second aggressive war against Tibet, the British army occupied Lhasa, and the 13th Dalai Lama was forced to flee from the city. The invaders compelled the Tibetan local government officials to sign the Lhasa Convention. But because the Ministry of External Affairs of the Qing government believed the Lhasa Convention would do damage to national sovereignty, the high commissioner stationed in Tibet by the Qing government refused to sign it, leaving it ineffectual.
Britain took advantage of the political chaos in China after the collapse of the Qing Dynasty and the new birth of the Republic of China in 1901, and put before the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs a five-point demand, indicating the denial of China's sovereignty over Tibet. Chinese government rejected the brutal demand.
In 1913 the British government inveigled the Tibetan authorities into declaring independence with the supervision and full support by British. Simply the British would like to turn Tibet into British colony like India. Once again British failed.
In the summer of 1942, the Tibetan local government, with the support of the British representative, announced the establishment of a "foreign affairs bureau," and openly carried out "Tibetan independence" activities. These actions were made public and condemned unanimously by the Chinese people. The national government also issued a stern warning. Under this pressure, the Tibetan local government had no choice but to withdraw its decision and reported the change to the national government.

In 1949, America announced in a US newspaper: “The United States is ready to recognize Tibet as an independent and free country."
In 1950, a load of American weaponry was shipped into Tibet through Calcutta in order to help resist the China army entry into Tibet. In the same year, US Secretary of State Dean Acheson openly slandered China's liberation of its own territory of Tibet as "invasion." In the same month the United States prodded some other countries to propose a motion at the United Nations for intervention in China's Tibet. The scheme was unsuccessful in face of the stern stand of the Chinese government and the opposition of some countries.

Former US President George Bush once declared that the coastal areas of China, plus Tibet, Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia, would split. The US' CIA, with an investment of US$245,000, entrusted the University of Hawaii to research whether the tense situations in ethnic areas in China will lead to a split of the country. The research results disappointed them.

In 1957 the CIA culled six young men from among Tibetans residing abroad and sent them to Guam of the United States to receive training in map-reading, radio transmission, shooting and parachuting. Subsequently, the United States trained 170 "Kamba guerrillas" in batches in Hale Camp, Colorado. The trained "Kamba guerrillas" were airdropped or sneaked into Tibet to execute CIA's plan activities. In May 1958, two agents trained by the Americans in the first batch brought a transceiver to the headquarter, which was set up by the rebel leader Anzhugcang Goinbo Zhaxi in Shannan, to make contact with the CIA. United States air-dropped arms and ammunition, including 20 sub-machine guns, two mortars, 100 rifles, 600 hand-grenades, 600 artillery shells and close to 40,000 bullets, to the rebels in the plateau called Chigu Lama Thang. During the same period, United States clandestinely shipped large amounts of arms and ammunition overland to the rebels entrenched in the Shannan area.

It was obvious that 1959 Tibet rebellion was all planned by American government
Form there on, America has been continuously backing the independent movement of Tibet all along. A movie "Seven Years in Tibet" produced by U.S. fooled the American with distorted historical facts. Funding was poured into foundations in U.S. to continue the anti-Chinese activities.

China's sovereignty on Tibet for over 700 years

Millions of files in both Chinese and Tibetan recording historical facts over more than seven centuries are being kept in the archives of Beijing, Nanjing and Lhasa. No government of any country in the world has ever recognized Tibet as an independent state.
British Foreign Secretary Lord Lansdowne, in a formal instruction he sent out in 1904, called Tibet "a province of the Chinese Empire."
In his speech at the Lok Sabba in 1954, Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru said, "Over the past several hundred years, as far as I know, at no time has any foreign country denied China's sovereignty over Tibet."

In Lhasa, the capital of the Tibet Autonomous Region, a statue of the Tang Princess Wen Cheng, who married the Tubo tsampo, king of Tibet, in 641, is still enshrined and worshiped in the Potala Palace. The Tang-Tubo Alliance Monument erected in 823 still stands in the square in front of the Jokhang Monastery. The monument inscription reads in part, "The two sovereigns, uncle and nephew, having come to agreement that their territories be united as one, have signed this alliance of great peace to last for eternity! May God and humanity bear witness thereto so that it may be praised from generation to generation."

Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368)

The Yuan emperor established the Xuanzheng Yuan or Ministry for the Spread of Governance to directly handle important military and political affairs of the Tibet region. Choice of its members lay with the emperor and its reports were submitted directly to the monarch.
The central government of the Yuan Dynasty sent officials into Tibet to set up post stations, whose size varied according to the local population, topography and resources. These post stations were linked up in a communication line extending from Tibet up to Dadu (present-day Beijing).

The central government of the Yuan Dynasty also dispatched officials into Tibet to conduct censuses, establish the number of corvee laborers in areas under various wanhu offices and decide the number of corvee laborers, provisions and animal transport the areas along the post route had to supply. Such censuses were conducted three times in Tibet, in 1268, 1287 and 1334..

Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)

In 1368 the Ming Dynasty replaced the Yuan Dynasty in China, and inherited the right to rule Tibet.
The central government of the Ming Dynasty retained most of the titles and ranks of official positions instituted during the Yuan Dynasty. In the central and eastern parts of present-day Tibet, the Dbus-Gtsang Itinerant High Commander and the Mdo-khams Itinerant High Commander were set up respectively.
Equivalent to provincial-level military organs, they operated under the Sh
aanxi Itinerant High Commander and, at the same time, handled civil administration. In Ngari in west Tibet, the E-Li-Si Army-Civilian Marshal Office was instituted. Leading officials of these organs were all appointed by the central government.

The Dalai Lama and the Bainqen Lama are the two leading incarnation hierarchies of the Gelug Sect of Tibetan Buddhism. The Gelug Sect rose during the Ming Dynasty, and the 3rd Dalai Lama was the abbot of one of the sect's monasteries. The central government of the Ming Dynasty showed him special favor by allowing him to pay tribute. In 1587 he was granted the title of Dorjichang or Vajradhara Dalai Lama.
Any official of the Tibetan local government who offended the law was punished by the central government.

Qing Dynasty (1644-1911)

When the Qing Dynasty replaced the Ming Dynasty in 1644, it further strengthened administration over Tibet.
In 1653 and 1713, the Qing emperors granted honorific titles to the 5th Dalai Lama and the 5th Bainqen Lama, henceforth officially establishing the titles of the Dalai Lama and the Bainqen Erdeni and their political and religious status in Tibet.

The Qing emperor made a young Living Buddha of the Xikang area the 7th Dalai Lama and had him escorted into Tibet, and appointed four Tibetan officials renowned for meritorious service "Galoins" to handle Tibet's political affairs.
In order to perfect Tibet's administrative organizations, the Qing Dynasty on many occasions enacted "regulations" to rectify and reform old systems and establish new ones. The Authorized Regulations for the Better Governing of Tibet, promulgated in 1793, had 29 articles. Their major purport was:
The Qing government holds the power to confirm the reincarnation of all deceased high Living Buddhas of Tibet including the Dalai Lama and the Bainqen Erdeni.

The high commissioners will supervise the handling of Tibetan affairs on behalf of the central government, enjoying the equal standing with the Dalai Lama and the Bainqen Erdeni. All the Galoins and those below them are subordinates.

Republic of China (1911-1949)

In 1913, the British government forced the Beijing government to participate in a tripartite conference of China, Britain and Tibet, namely the Simla Conference held at the behest of the British government.
On July 3, 1914, the Chinese government representative Chen Yifan upon instruction refused to sign the Simla Convention. In his statement, Chen said, "Government of China refuses to recognize any agreement which His Majesty's Government and Tibet might conclude independently either now or in the future." The Chinese government also sent a note to the British government, reiterating its position.
In the summer of 1942, the Tibetan local government, with the support of the British representative, announced the establishment of a "foreign affairs bureau," and openly carried out "Tibetan independence" activities. These actions, as soon as they were made public, were condemned unanimously by the Chinese people. The national government also issued a stern warning. Under this pressure, the Tibetan local government had no choice but to withdraw its decision and reported the change to the national government

People's Republic of China (1949 - now)

After a long civil war and the World War II, Chinese people finally established Peoples' Republic of China on October 1, 1949. All foreign powers had been driven out of China. PRC continued in recovering the rest of Mainland China and its army entered Tibet in 1951.
Tibet is one of the Autonomies in China. So far no country in this world ever raised doubt in China 's sovereignty right over Tibet. Any claim of Chinese invasion of Tibet in 1959 is nonsense. There are no historical evidences or legal positions that China has lost its sovereignty over Tibet. "Invasion" has no meaning to a country exercising its sovereignty right on its own land.

Freedom and Human Right

Before 1951, Tibet was under a feudal serfdom characterized by the dictatorship of upper-class monks and nobles. The feudal lords who constituted only five percent of the population possessed 95 percent of the means of production. Tibet serfs were even more miserable than the black slaves in the United States before the civil war. Tibet was at that time not peaceful at all because the struggles between the slaves and their lords were very fierce.

Before 1951, there were no other religions allowed in Tibet. There were evidences that missioners were killed in Tibet in the past.
Tibetans now enjoy their freedom of religions and are liberated from the feudal serfdom system. They live in a much better society than before.

It is obvious that British and America support to Tibet independent movement is not for freedom or human right. It is purely a political game. It shows again and again their ambitious in taking over China and their continuous anti-Chinese sentiment, which has been exercised for a few hundred years.



(你可能已听过不少西方媒体关于中国侵略西藏或耸人听闻的西藏独立运动。但是,你们知道吗?中国有56个民族,历史上从来就不是一个种族主义国家。你们知道吗?几千年来,西藏人从中国其他地区移民来到西藏。你们知道吗,1951年当解放军进入西藏时,他们也解放了中国的其他地区,(中国军队入侵中国?这不是太好笑了吗)。你们知道吗,1951年之前,西藏的封建领主只有总人口的5 %,却占有95 %的财产。你们知道吗?佛教从中国正常传入西藏,然后发展到目前的状态?要判断一个你已被误导了几百年的民族,你应该先读一读西藏的历史) 。


十九世纪,中国遭受了大规模的社会动乱,经济停滞,人口爆增,西方渗透,无恶不作。清朝政府软弱无能,荣景不再。英国不顾其自身帝国禁止销售上瘾毒品的法令,持续非法大量向中国贩卖鸦片,1840年终于爆发了第一次鸦片战争,中国战败。后来,英国和其他西方列强,包括美国,强行占领“租界” ,得到商业特权。1842年,南京条约把香港被割让给英国。1898年,鸦片战争终于结束,英国强行租借新界99年,大规模扩大香港殖民地的面积。



1942年夏天,西藏当地政府在英方代表的支持下,宣布成立一个“外交局” ,公开进行“西藏独立”活动。这些行动受到中国人民的一致公开谴责。国民政府也发出严正警告。在此压力下,西藏地方政府不得不撤回决定,并将改变向国民政府报告。
1949年,美国政府在一家美国报纸上宣布:“美国准备承认西藏是一个独立自由的国家” 。
1950年,美国经加尔各答向西藏运送大量武器,帮助抵抗进入西藏的中国军队。同年,美国国务卿迪安·艾奇逊公开诬蔑中国解放自己的领土西藏为“入侵” 。同一个月,美国拉拢其他一些国家在联合国提出干预中国西藏的议案。面对中国政府的严峻立场和一些国家的反对,该计划没有成功。


1957年,美国中央情报局挑选了6名居住在国外的藏族男青年,送去关岛接受训练,从地图阅读、无线电收发、射击、空降等。随后,美国在科罗拉多州黑尔营分批训练了170名 “坎巴游击队” 。受过训练的“坎巴游击队” ,被空降或潜入西藏执行中情局的计划。1958年5月,美国培训出来的首批两名特工人员,带了无线电收发器到由叛军领袖 anzhugcang goinbo在山南扎西成立的总部,和中情局接触。美国空投武器弹药给在名叫哲古喇嘛唐高原的叛乱分子,包括20挺机枪,两门迫击炮, 100支步枪, 600个手榴弹, 600枚炮弹和近40000发子弹。同一时期,美国还从陆路向盘踞在山南地区的叛乱分子秘密运送了大量的武器弹药。



英国外交大臣蓝斯唐候爵在他1904年发出的一份正式声明中指出,“西藏是中华帝国的一个省” 。
1954年,印度总理尼赫鲁在络萨巴讲话时说:“据我所知,过去的几百年里,任何时候都没有任何外国否认中国对西藏的主权” 。
在西藏自治区首府拉萨,公元641年嫁给西藏吐蕃国王松赞干布的唐代公主文成雕像,仍然在布达拉宫供奉和祭祀。公元823年唐朝-吐蕃结盟的“甥舅同盟碑”,依然矗立在大昭寺广场前。碑文写着。”今蕃漢兩國,所守見管本界,界以東悉為大唐國境,以西盡是大蕃境土,彼此不為寇、不舉兵、不相侵。上帝众生,共同见证,世代永记” 。

元朝 (1279-1368)


明朝 (1368-1644)



清朝 (1644-1911)

为完善西藏的行政机构,清朝多次颁布“条例” ,整顿和改革旧体,建立新制。1793年颁布了29条法规,更有效地治理西藏。要旨是:

民国 (1911-1949)

1914年7月3日,中国政府指示代表陈一凡,拒绝在西姆拉公约上签字。陈在声明中说,“中国政府不承认任何英国政府的可能导致西藏独立的协议,不论是现在或未来” 。中国政府还给英国政府发出一个照会,重申其立场。
1942年夏天,西藏当地政府在英方代表的支持下,宣布成立一个”外交局” ,公开进行”西藏独立”活动。这些勾当一旦公诸于世,即受到中国人民的一致谴责。国民政府也发出严正警告。在此压力下,西藏地方政府不得不撤回其决定,并向国民政府报告了决定的改变。

中华人民共和国 (1949 - now)


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